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TExT Style Guidelines

Every publishing house has its style, and TExT tries to maintain some consistency in our style. The following are the guidelines we plan to use to help us have a consistent style. When in doubt, follow the SBL Handbook of Style.
Our tools are written in English, and to maintain consistency we try to follow Standard American English conventions. Contributors may submit content in British English if that is most familiar, but we will likely change that to American English at some point in the editorial process. We regret that we have to choose one, but it is necessary to produce professional results.


Old Testament

Gen Genesis Eccl Ecclesiastes
Exod Exodus Song Song of Solomon
Lev Leviticus Isa Isaiah
Num Numbers Jer Jeremiah
Deut Deuteronomy Lam Lamentations
Josh Joshua Ezek Ezekiel
Judg Judges Dan Daniel
Ruth Ruth Hos Hosea
1Sam 1 Samuel Joel Joel
2Sam 2 Samuel Amos Amos
1Kgs 1 Kings Obad Obadiah
2Kgs 2 Kings Jonah Jonah
1Chr 1 Chronicles Mic Micah
2Chr 2 Chronicles Nah Nahum
Ezra Ezra Hab Habakkuk
Neh Nehemiah Zeph Zephaniah
Esth Esther Hag Haggai
Job Job Zech Zechariah
Ps Psalms Mal Malachi
Prov Proverbs

New Testament

Matt Matthew 1 Tim 1 Timothy
Mark Mark 2 Tim 2 Timothy
Luke Luke Titus Titus
John John Phlm Philemon
Acts Acts Heb Hebrews
Rom Romans Jas James
1 Cor 1 Corinthians 1 Pet 1 Peter
2 Cor 2 Corinthians 2 Pet 2 Peter
Gal Galatians 1 John 1 John
Eph Ephesians 2 John 2 John
Phil Philippians 3 John 3 John
Col Colossians Jude Jude
1 Thess 1 Thessalonians Rev Revelation
2 Thess 2 Thessalonians

Apocrypha and Septuagint

Bar Baruch Jdt Judith
AddDan Additions to Daniel 1Macc 1 Maccabees
PrAzar Prayer of Azariah 2Macc 2 Maccabees
Bel Bel and the Dragon 3Macc 3 Maccabees
SgThree Song of the Three Young Men 4Macc 4 Maccabees
Sus Susanna PrMan Prayer of Manasseh
1Esd 1 Esdras Sir Sirach/Ecclesiasticus
2Esd 2 Esdras Tob Tobit
AddEsth Additions to Esther Wis Wisdom of Solomon
EpJer Epistle of Jeremiah

General Terms

acc. accusative masc. masculine
act. active mid. middle
AD Anno Domini MT Masoretic Text
adj. adjective neg. negative
adv. adverb neut. neuter
aor. aorist nom. nominative
Apocr. Apocrypha NT New Testament
Aram. Aramaic obj. object
art. article opt. optative
attrib. attributive OT Old Testament
augm. augment p., pp. page(s)
BC Before Christ pass. passive
c. about (time), circa perf. perfect
cf. compare pers. person
class. classical (Greek) plur. plural
comp. comparative plupf. pluperfect
conj. conjunction pred. predicate
dat. dative prep. preposition
decl. declension pres. present
dep. deponent pron. pronoun
e.g. for example part. participle
esp. especially redupl. reduplication
fem. feminine reflex. reflexive
fut. future rel. relative
gen. genitive sing. singular
Gr. Greek subj. subjunctive
Heb. Hebrew subst. substantively
i.e. that is superl. superlative
impv. imperative syll. syllable
impf. imperfect synon. synonymous
ind. indicative Syr. Syriac
inf. infinitive TR Textus Receptus
instr. instrumental trans. transitive
interr. interrogative translit. transliteration
intr. intransitive voc. vocative
irreg. irregular Vulg. Vulgate
Lat. Latin v(v). verse(s)
lit. literally w.o. word order
LXX Septuagint

Typing in Unicode Greek and Hebrew

All TExT projects use unicode for Hebrew and Greek. For more information about unicode fonts and keyboards, see the SBL FAQ. If you are not sure whether you are typing unicode Hebrew or Greek, type in your word processor and change the font to Arial Unicode MS, which includes all Greek and Hebrew glyphs. If it looks like Greek or Hebrew, then you are typing in unicode. Many older Bible software programs and some recent programs still do not have unicode texts. If you need to find unicode texts, we suggest installing BibleTime and downloading the texts using its Bookshelf Manager.

Transliteration of Greek and Hebrew


α a
β b
γ g, or n before γ, κ, ξ, or χ
δ d
ε e
ζ z
η ē
θ th
ι i
κ k
λ l
μ m
ν n
ξ x
ο o
π p
ρ r
σ, ς s
τ t
υ y (not in diphthongs)
υ u (in diphthongs)
φ ph
χ ch
ψ ps
ω ō
h (with vowel or diphthong)


א ʾ
ב b
ג g
ד d
ה h
ו w
ז z
י y
ך כ k
ל l
ם מ m
ן נ n
ס s
ע ʿ
ף פ p
ץ צ
ק q
ר r
שׂ ś
שׁ š
ת t
בַ a
בַ a
בָ ā
בָה â
בָיו āyw
בֶ e
בֵ ē
בֵי ê (בֵיּ = êy)
בֶי ê (בֶיּ = êy)
בִ i
בִ ī
בִי î
בָ o
בֹ ō
וֹ ô
בֻ u
בֻ ū
וּ û
בֳ ŏ
בֲ ă
בֱ ĕ
בְ ĕ

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